Drills or drill machines are tools are used for cutting holes through materials such as metal, plastics, wood and other surfaces. A drilling machine utilizes a tool for drilling. The drilling tool contains cutting edges on the pointed end. The tool is fitted in the drill machine using a Morse or Chuck taper. The drilling tool rotates in regulate speed through working pieces. A drill can be used to carry out other functions. Drills can be used in boring, reaming, tapping, spot facing, and counter boring. The drill operator must understand the work set up, feed and set speeds. They also must have a coolant in order to get a desired outcome. Friction from grinding tools may cause overheating hence altering or destroying drill and work piece.
Capacity and size of drills are determined by available largest stock pieces that could be drilled at the center. The drill size could also be determined by largest size of hole that could be drilled, the vertical space between spindle and worktable and length between column and spindle.
Drill machines are often used in metal working, woodworking, DIY and construction projects. Special drill designs are applied in space missions, medicine and such like applications. There are different drill makes specific to certain performance needs determined by capacity and power.
Characteristics of Drills
All Drills have common construction qualities such as the quill or sleeve, base, worktable, column and spindle.
Spindle: This component is used as cutting tool or for holding the drill. It revolves on a stationary sleeve position. Most drills have the spindle in vertical positions and the horizontal table supports working Piece.
Sleeve or Quill: This component doesn’t revolve although it could slide on its own bearing in parallel axis direction. When spindle anchoring the cutting tool carried by a sleeve is brought down, this cutting equipment is forced against the working material. The pressure forced against the sleeve by power or hand makes the drill, which is revolving, to force its way inside the work piece in bits for every revolution.
Worktable: The support to the worktable comes from a mounted arm. The arm is mounted against the column. Worktables are adjustable vertically. This allows the table to handle varying work heights. The worktable could also be swung to move from position. The tilting can go for a maximum of 90 degrees in both directions. This makes it possible for lengthy pieces to be drilled at an angle or by their ends.
Column: Most drills have the column with circular presses. They are often built solid and rugged. Columns are used in supporting the quill or sleeve and head assemblies.
Head: a drill head is made of spindle, sleeve, feed, and electric motor mechanisms. The head will be fastened on the column with bolts.
Base: The drill has a base which supports the whole machine. When fastened on floor surface using bolts, it helps achieve top accuracy and alleviates vibrations from the machining process. The base has a top similar to that on worktables. It could contain T-slots used for fastening excessively large work pieces on -such that cannot be mounted on a worktable.