Shaping machines are used for the purpose of machining surfaces. It could cut angles, curves and many different types of shapes. The machine is quite popular in workshops owing to the simple movements. It could produce different versions of work. Shaping machines are manufactured in different sizes as well.
Modern shaping machines can produce contoured designs to surfaces. This is made possible through rigid holding of work pieces on machine followed by reciprocating shaping motions from a distinctly shaped tool attached on the head of shaping tool. This tool travels on horizontal axis along the working piece. Metal shapers also exist.
Purpose and significance
Through chipping the shaping machine cuts work pieces into desired shapes, surfaces and dimensions as would be desired. They often yield flat surfaces, grooves, shoulders and identical shapes. It is possible to produce arched or circular shaped surfaces as well. Shaping machines use distinct tools for cutting with return stroke and working stroke. The process of shaping requires interplay of turning and shaping of working pieces in order to produce a desired outcome. Shaping is often done with an objective of eliminating substantial quantities of material in chips form. The shaping process removes iron scales from metal surface and aligns surfaces. It also involves cutting heavy or long sections of material for the purpose of shaping plate edges etc.
Shaping is often accompanied by other processes such as scrapping and grinding for the purpose of achieving surface excellence.
Shaping machine types
Crank shaper: This is a common shaping machine. The ram motions in a crank machine come from a crank, crank pin and crank block. The size of the shaper will be known through the ram’s biggest stroke. The stroke range is usually between 12inches and 36 inches. The 24 inch stroke is the most conspicuous.
Gear shaper: The ram’s reciprocating movements on hydraulic shapers come from pinion and rack. The direction and speed of movement by the machine is dependent on the gears found in gear train. This shaper type is not common.
Horizontal shaper: The tool used to hold the ram in horizontal shapers reciprocates on horizontal axis. The horizontal shapers will often yield flat surfaces.
Hydraulic Shapers: Reciprocating movements of hydraulic shapers are derived from hydraulic power. This shaper operates with oil pumped into cylinder with high pressure. The cylinder has a piston for control. The piston end is attached to the shaper’s ram. High pressure works on either side of piston therefore making reciprocating motion on piston. The reciprocating motion gets transferred to ram. The speed of piston changes through adjustments of oil quantities delivered through shaper pump. This shaper is advantageous in that the force and speed of cutting on ram drive is unchanged from start to completion of cutting.
Vertical shaper: the ram on which the tool is attached on a vertical shaper rotates on vertical axis. Some vertical machines have some provisions allowing for adjustment of Ram for up to 1000 on vertical position. The shapers could be rack, crank, hydraulic or screw driven.
Other types of shaper machines: Plain or standard shaper, travelling head machine, universal shaper, draw shaper, and push shaper machine.